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All of an organisms chemical reactions and their combined effects. Metabolic Pathway. Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product. Catabolic Pathway. Releases energy by breaking down molecules. Anabolic Pathway. Consumes energy to build complicated molecules from smaller molecules. The capacity to cause change. Kinetic Energy. Energy associated with motion.
Potential Energy. Energy of Position. Chemical Energy. Potential energy available for release in chemical bonds.As catabolic pathways break these molecules down, the animal releases CO2 and O2 molecules that possess less chemical energy than the food eaten Energy flows into an ecosystem in the form of light and exists in the form of heat The entropy of a particular system such as an organism may decrease as long as the total entropy of the universe increases CONCEPT CHECK 8.
How does the second law of thermodynamics help explain the diffusion of a substance across a membrane? When a substance diffuses across a membrane, it goes from a high concentration to a low concentration, or high entropy to low entropy.
Since this action releases energy, this helps to increase the entropy of the universe. Diffusion of a substance to a region where it is initially less concentrated increases entropy, making it an energetically favorable spontaneous process as described by the second law. Describe the forms of energy found in an apple as it grows on a tree, then falls, and is digested by someone who eats it. As an apple forms and grows, it has chemical energy and as it hangs from the tree, it has potential energy.
If it falls onto the ground, it has kinetic energy. After it is eaten, its molecules are broken down, and some of its chemical energy is used to do work through kinetic energy, saved as potential energy, and lost as thermal energy. What if you place a teaspoon of sugar in the bottom of a glass of water, it will dissolve completely over time. Left longer, eventually the water will disappear and the sugar crystals will reappear. Explain these observations in terms of entropy. The sugar crystals become less ordered entropy increases as they dissolve and become randomly spread out in the water.
Over time, the water evaporates, and the crystals form again because the water volume is insufficient to keep them in solution. Willard Gibbs o Free-Energy denoted by the letter G, is the portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system Ex. Free energy measure of a systems instability, its tendency to change to a more stable state.
Diver on top of a platform is less stable more likely to fall than when floating in the water system moves towards greater stability diver falls Ex. A drop of concentrated dye is less stable more likely to disperse than when the dye is spread randomly through the liquid system moves towards greater stability solution becomes uniformly colored Ex. Cellular respiration uses glucose and oxygen, which have high levels of free energy, and releases carbon dioxide and water, which have low levels of free energy.
Is respiration spontaneous or not? Is it exergonic or endergonic? What happens to the energy released from glucose? Cellular respiration is a spontaneous exergonic process and the energy released from glucose is used to either do work in the cell or is lost as heat. Other processes can result in an equal concentration of hydrogen ions on each side. At nightly celebrations, revelers can sometimes be seen wearing glow-in-the-dark necklaces.
They start glowing once they are activated, in a way that allows two chemicals to react and emit light in the form of chemiluminescence. Is this exergonic or endergonic? The reaction is exergonic because it releases energy in the form of light. Ex: Energy coupling using ATP hydrolysis right o The exergonic process of ATP hydrolysis is used to drive an endergonic process Cellular synthesis of the amino acid glutamine from glutamic acid and ammonia Cells can use the energy released by ATP hydrolysis with the help of specific enzymes to drive chemical reactions that, by themselves, are endergonic o If G of an endergonic reaction is less than the amount of energy released by ATP hydrolysis, then the two reactions can be coupled so that the coupled reactions are exergonic.
In most cases, how does ATP transfer energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions in the cell? ATP usually transfers energy to endergonic processes by phosphorylating adding phosphate groups to other molecules. Which of the following combinations has more free energy: a. A set of coupled reactions can transform the first combination into the second. Since this is an exergonic process overall, G is negative and the first combination must have more free energy.
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Degradative reactions where complex molecules are broken down into simple molecules ex. Anabolic Reactions. Synthetic reactions simple molecules combine to create complex molecules ex. Energy Coupling. Catabolic and anabolic pathways usually overlap, where the energy from catabolism is used to power anabolism. Kinetic Energy. Energy of motion where moving objects perform work by imparting motion to other matter ex.
Potential Energy. Stored energy; capacity to do work due to location or structure ex. Potential Energy: Chemical Energy. Energy stored in molecules as a result of the arrangement of of atoms in the molecule.
Different kinds of Burning. Hydrocarbons in a car engine burn in a combustion like reaction, while sugars are "burned" in an organism through a process of reactions. Energy conversion. Energy can be converted from one form to another.
Potential to Kinetic Conversion: Divers. Potential energy in food allows diver to jump from diving board and is converted to kinetic energy. Study of energy transformations in matter. Law of Conservation of Energy Energy in the universe is constant and is either created nor destroyed Can only be converted from one kind to another Usually reversible.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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G free energy of a system? H total energy of a system enthalpy T temperature in oK? S entropy of a system 13 Free Energy of a System If the system has more free energyless stable greater work capacity less free energymore stable less work capacity As rxn moves towards equilibrium,? G will decrease 14 Chemical Reactions These are the source of energy for living systems They are based on free energy changes Two types exergonic and endergonic 15 Reaction Types Exergonic chemical reactions with a net release of free energy Ex cellular respiration -?
Genergy out, spontaneous Endergonic chemical reactions that absorb free energy from the surroundings Ex Photosynthesis? Cells cant rely on heat to kick start rxns Why? Denaturation, heat cant decipher between rxns Enzymes are selective! Sucrase - ase name of an enzyme 1st part tells what the substrate is i. Sucrose 30 Enzyme Name Some older known enzymes don't fit this naming pattern Examples pepsin, trypsin 31 Active Site The area of an enzyme that binds to the substrate Structure is designed to fit the molecular shape of the substrate Therefore, each enzyme is substrate specific 32 No Transcript 33 Enzyme equation Enzyme Enzyme- Enzyme Subtrate Sub complex Product Notice Complex becomes product, but enzyme stays the same!
The mechanism of phosphoglycerate mutase, the eighth enzyme in glycolysis, is the focus of this problem. It is this enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW.
Introduction to metabolism review
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Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. Course Home Syllabus. Instructor Insights. Module I: Basic Biochemistry. Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome!Chapter 2 Handout. Chapter 3 -Water. Chapter 3 Outline.
Water Chapter 4 chguided-reading. Chapter 4 -Organic Chemistry.
Chapter 8: An Introduction To Metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 4 Outline. Chapter 5 -Macromolecules. Chapter 5 Outline. Protein Structure. Cells and tissues. Chapter 7 -Membrane Structure — Function. Chapter 7 Outline. Chapter 10, Exchange and Transport Systems. Membrane permeability. Chapter 8 Outline. Mechanism of Enzyme Action.
Chapter 8 -Introduction to Metabolism. Biological Redox Reactions. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration. Chapter 9 Outline.
Metabolism Lecture Notes
U3 Energy notes. Chemiosmotic Coupling. Electron Carriers. Oxygen Metabolism and Oxygen Toxicity. Fate of Pyruvate. Glycogen Metabolism. Regulation of glycolysis. Chapter 10 Outline. Chapter 10 Photosynthesis.I don't want to reset my password. These notes consist of information from chapter 2 and are intended to supplement the notes and slides from lecture 1 of bio 5a.
This is the first part of the full set of supplementary notes. These notes cover information from the textbook and are meant to supplement the lecture. The notes cover key concepts, main points, key terms, equations, and examples. These notes cover chapter 4 of the textbook and are intended to supplement lecture.
The notes include key concepts, main points, key terms, and examples. These notes cover information from chapter 5 of the textbook and are intended to supplement the lecture. The notes include key concepts, key terms, main points, and examples. These notes cover information from chapter 6 of the textbook and are intended to supplement the lecture material.
These notes cover information from chapter 7 of the textbook and are intended to supplement information from the lecture. These notes cover information from chapter 8 from the textbook and are intended to supplement information from the lecture. These nots cover information from the textbook and are intended to supplement information from the lecture. The notes involve key concepts and examples from chapter Log in Sign Up. Forgot password?
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